In 1950 China invaded Tibet and by 1951 China imposed a Seventeen Point Agreement on Tibet. It guaranteed Tibetans political, religious, and educational rights but Chinese control over foreign affairs and allowed the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) in the territory. The Chinese imposed collectivization of agriculture and other communist measures, which resulted in gradual rebellion amongst the Tibetans. The Chinese then responded with violence and thousands of Tibetans were killed as well incarcerated. By 1959 the rebellion reached an uprising that caused the Dalai Lama to flee to India. Thousands of Tibetans were killed and many were sent to forced-labor camps with minimal food rations. An estimated 90,000 of Tibetans had died either by murder or from the harsh living conditions.